no mood for political or military adventurism in the region.” Britain was concerned that the. Axis forces would gain a foothold in the region or that the Levant. Hichem Djait is professor emeritus of history at University of Tunis. His work La Grande Discorde: Religion et politique dans l’Islam des origines Djaït,Hichem. It is easy to discover that the best book there is on the subject is by the brilliant Tunisian scholar, Hichem Djait: La Grande Discorde, which.

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The battle lasted three days. But later when Uthman declined to give them more lands in Persia [14] [19] they felt that their status was being reduced and therefore started to cause trouble.

Some of Ali’s supporters were also very extreme in their views and considered everyone garnde be their enemy. In the Hasan-Muawiya treatyHasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he be just to the people and keep them safe and secure and after his death he does not establish a dynasty.

The Islamic caliphate expanded very quickly under Muhammad and the first three caliphs. By now Hassan only ruled the area around Kufa. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari agreed to open the proceedings, and said, “We have devised a solution after a good deal of thought and it may put an end to all contention and separatist tendencies.

During the time of ‘Uthman, they had appointed Abu Musa al-Ash’ari as the Governor of Kufa and removed ‘Uthman’s governor before they started fighting Uthman Ali found it expedient to agree to this choice in order to ward off bloody dissensions in his army. When the time arrived for taking a decision about the caliphate, Amr bin al-A’as convinced Abu Musa al-Ashari that they should deprive both Ali and Mu’awiya of the caliphate, and give to the Muslims the right to elect the caliph. Retrieved 21 September Among them developed a group called the Qurra, which later became known as the Kharijites.


The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. The loss of life was terrible. Region under the control of Muawiyah I. Tie the copies of the Quran to the ends of the spears.

Neither side wanted to fight. As Uthman ibn Affan became very old, Marwan Ia relative of Muawiyah Islipped into the vacuum and became his secretary, slowly assuming more control and relaxing some of these restrictions.

Grande discorde

However, the Qurra and the Sabaites were unhappy with the settlement and launched a night attack. Although Diait won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing. They also asked Uthman’s adopted son, Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifawho Uthman had refused to appoint as a governor of any province, why he was not a governor.

A Historical Encyclopedia edited by Alexander Mikaberidzep.

On Him I rely and to Him I return. Nasr b Muzahim, in one of the earliest sources states that al-Ashath ibn Qays, one of Ali’s key supporters and a Kufan, then stood up and said:. Dkscorde death had a polarizing effect in the Muslim world at the time.

If we meet tomorrow the Byzantines will attack our women and children and the people of Djaiy will attack the women and children of Mesopotamia. There is no success except by Allah. The Qurra then felt that Abu Musa al-Ashari could look after their interests better. Ali pardoned Aisha and her brother escorted her back to Medina.

First Fitna – Wikipedia

After the treaty with Hassan, Muawiyah ruled for nearly 20 years most of which were spent expanding the state. There was also continuous bloodshed of the people during these wars. Those with forebearance and intelligence see this. Sects started to form, among them the Sabaites named after Abdullah Ibn Saba.


The people of Medina asked Ali, who had been chief judge in Medina, to become the Caliph and he accepted. Ali was convinced to make Kufa the capital. Uthman only listened to the advice of Marwan and Saeed bin Aas, and Marwan did his best to act as a barrier between Ali and Uthman. It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated by Egyptian rebels in and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman’s successor Ali ibn Abi Talib. Three years later, and there came the inevitable blowback: Marwan I had previously been excluded from positions of responsibility.

Archived from the original on The Syrians choice fell on ‘Amr bin al-A’as who was the rational soul and spokesman of Muawiya. You have seen what happened in the day which has passed. O company of Muslims! Syracuse University Press Aisha ‘s forces Muawiya ‘s forces. The Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate, but there was a cost associated with it.

First Fitna

In Mesopotamia, many people hated the Syrians. In the yearMuawiyah was crowned as caliph at a ceremony in Jerusalem. Brunnow trace the origins of the Qurra and the Kharijites back to Bedouin stock and desert tribesmen, who had become soldiers not out of rjait to Islam but to share the spoils. Battle of the Camel. Rebellion successful, peace treaty signed; Muawiya I begins the Umayyad dynasty.